"Scattered & Gathered": Catholics in Diaspora
Catholicism is a worldwide phenomenon, both global in scope and inculturated into local contexts. In this conference, we will explore what happens to Catholicism when it is swept up into larger patterns of migration and displacement in the contemporary world. What is the experience of immigrant and refugee Catholic communities? What kinds of tensions and opportunities arise in such contexts? How do Korean Catholics in California and Zimbabwean Catholics in England develop practices and theologies within a new context? What do those practices and theologies have to tell us about the promises of—and fault lines within—a fully global Catholicism?
Monday, April 7
Sovereign God & Sovereign Nations: Truth & Difference
D. Willis James Professor of Missions & World Christianity
Yale Divinity School
Moderator: William Cavanaugh
(CWCIT Director, DePaul University)
Whether scattered or gathered, communities of faith beyond the West today confront challenges & opportunities that are particular to the post-Western phase of the worldwide Christian movement. Just as new nations were coming into existence with faltering steps, new communities of faith were also emerging with contrasting energy & momentum, creating the double challenge of membership in the religious community & membership in the national community. The duties of religion intersect with the demands of nationality, making obedience to God an obligation simultaneous with loyalty to the nation. While Catholic social teaching addresses this dual obligation from the point of view of normative values, it has not done so to the same extent from the point of view of emerging post-Western societies where fragile political institutions & resurgent communities of faith have converged, and often collided, with people of faith bearing personal responsibility for this dual heritage. The lecture will use the framework of dual citizenship & dual heritage to explore truth & difference and their combined significance for personal life & the civic order.
Tuesday, April 8
Cultures of Diaspora
Margarita Mooney, Associate Research Scientist, Sociology, Yale University
Michel Andraos, Associate Professor, Intercultural Studies & Ministry, Catholic Theological Union
Moderator: Rev. Pierre AlBalaa, MLM (Pastor, Our Lady of Lebanon Maronite Catholic Church--Lombard, IL)
M. Mooney--How do people who have lost both family members & their home country find the inner strength to deal with poverty & marginalization? What are the social structures that support resilience among migrants? Through personal narratives of Haitian migrants, Dr. Mooney shows how religious communities are particularly powerful sources of resilience. Religious liturgies, strong relationships in religious communities, & the social services provided within such communities integrate the whole human: person, body, soul & mind.
M. Andraos--Like other immigrant communities, Levantine Catholic communities in the diaspora face the challenge of maintaining their religious & cultural identities & traditions as well as reinterpreting these traditions in a meaningful way to the second generation. In his presentation, Dr. Andraos identifies some of these challenges & offers a theological reflection on the future of these communities in North America.
Catholic Mission & Identity
Simon C. Kim, Assistant Professor, Theology, Our Lady of Holy Cross College
Cecile Motus, Former Assistant Director, Secretariat of Cultural Diversity in the Church, USCCB
Moderator: Teri Nuval, Director, Office for Asian Catholics, Archdiocese of Chicago
S. Kim--The Catholic faith has always been on the move. This movement is the Church’s mission, a composite of emigration & immigration. One result of the mission is Christian diaspora. The more we reflect on diaspora, we find that Christians who immigrate retain elements of the home culture, & yet develop into a new people. These developments are both subtle & drastic at times & show the dynamics of Christian mission & identity as a new creation of believers emerge. This can be seen clearly when looking at the Korean diaspora. Similarities from early Christianity, the Korean Martyrs, & Korean American Catholics can be identified. These initial small, emerging communities develop into a new creation by maintaining significant aspects of the cultural & religious heritage within the new context of the believers’ lives.
C. Motus--A fast-growing population in the Catholic Church in the United States, Asian & Pacific Catholics are gift-bearers to the Church in this country. This session provides a bird's eye view of the experiences of Asian & Pacific immigrants & refugees, who they are & the impact of migration on their practice of the Catholic faith. Ms. Motus discusses emerging theologies, tensions & opportunities experienced as families integrate in society & the local church. She also shares stories mainly from four larger Asian Catholic communities—Filipinos, Vietnamese, Chinese & Korean.
Multiplicity of Identity*
Matthew Tan, Visiting Assistant Professor, Catholic Studies, Research Fellow, CWCIT, DePaul University
Mark R. Mullins, Professor of Japanese, The University of Auckland (New Zealand)
Moderator: Mark Bersano, Coordinator of Parish Leadership & Management Programs, Institute for Pastoral Studies, Loyola University Chicago
*This session was originally titled "Catholic Diaspora in Secular Cultures" & featured Gösta Hallonsten (Lund University, Sweden). However, on 3/20/14, we learned that, due to personal circumstances, he can no longer attend the conference. We are grateful to Matthew Tan for being able to speak at this time, rather than on Wed., April 9.
M. Tan--This talk looks at the issue of multiplicity of identity from a theological perspective, specifically through the lens of Augustinian theology. It attempts to show how postmodern theories of identity can help us understand how multiplicity affects more than just migrants, but also show how theology goes beyond the limitations of postmodern migrant theory. The talk concludes by exploring the possibilities of coalescing Deleuze & Bonaventure.
M. Mullins--Although the diffusion of Christianity through immigration is a taken-for-granted reality in the history of religion in many places, it has not been regarded as a significant factor for understanding the development of Christianity in Japan. This has changed significantly over the past several decades with the rapid influx of foreign workers from dominantly Catholic countries. The Church is now being reshaped by these immigrants from Brazil, Peru, & the Philippines, for example, as they bring with them alternative cultural traditions & ways of practicing the faith. This talk highlights some of the difficulties involved in the transformation of a “Japanese Church” into a “multicultural community” in the increasingly nationalistic context of contemporary Japan.
The Latin American Catholic Diaspora
Ondina Cortés, RMI, Assistant Professor, School of Theology & Ministry, St. Thomas University
Afonso Soares, Professor, Theology, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (Brazil)
Dorian Llywelyn, SJ, Director, Catholic Studies, Loyola Marymount University
Moderator: Elizabeth Martínez, Director, Center for Latino Research, DePaul University
O. Cortés, RMI--The Cuban diaspora in the U.S. is known for its economic achievements & political influence. Much less publicized is how faith shapes this community’s self-understanding, particularly within the Cuban Catholic community in South Florida. Catholicism, in its Cuban cultural expression, offers critical theological resources that have enabled the community to face the challenges of diasporic experience & transform them into mission.
A. Soares--Drawing on some collected data, this talk raises some questions that help illuminate the challenges of the pastoral & the theology of migration. The presentation proceeds in three stages: initially, remembering the current concern of the Church's magisterium with the syncretism among Catholic (im)migrants; then, offering some examples of these syncretisms; and finally, focusing on the task of pastoral theology from this suggestion: the way for solution is a careful theology of revelation that dialogues with the theology of religions.
D. Llywelyn, SJ--Over the course of the last century, many members of the population of the remote Chilean archipelago of Chiloé have emigrated to Chilean & Argentinian Patagonia. In the capital of the Chilean province of Magallanes, the small city of Punta Arenas, the shrine of Jesús Nazareño is the epicenter of a diasporic Chilote identity. Public devotion to a statue of the suffering Christ--itself a copy of a historic original located in the homeland of Chiloé--has engendered a new pride in, and awareness of, a historically marginalized population. This talk examines the history & development of the cult, & considers the role of processions & pilgrimages as expressions of collective identity.
Religion Displaced & Replaced: What We Have to Learn from Diaspora Communities
Robert Schreiter, C.PP.S., Vatican Council II Professor of Theology, Catholic Theological Union
Moderator: Brian Schmisek, Director, Institute for Pastoral Studies, Loyola University Chicago
What happens to the religious life of communities who are uprooted & resettled in new and (for them) strange places? This presentation will look at the transformations of immigrant religious communities, both in their own faith and the impact they have on their home & new environments.
Wednesday, April 9
The Asian Catholic Diaspora
Jaisy Joseph, Theology doctoral candidate, Boston College
Linh Hoang, OFM, Professor, Religious Studies, Siena College
Moderator: Jaime Waters, Assistant Professor, Catholic Studies, DePaul University
J. Joseph--Reflecting upon the kairos of the third millennium, Gioacchino Campese, CS, argues that we are in the midst of an “irruption of migrants.” This irruption demands a specific witness to make present those who are often absent from societal & ecclesial consciousness. In response, this talk first addresses the epistemological & hermeneutical consequences of the migrant & diasporic experience. It then explores three particular negotiations made by SyroMalabar Catholics in diaspora. Finally, it envisions how the existential in-between experienced by migrants & their families in diaspora can inform Catholic ecclesiology.
L. Hoang, OFM--In 1998, for the 200th anniversary of Mary’s apparition in La Vang, Vietnam, Catholics in Vietnam ordered a “Vietnamese-looking” Mary that was created by a Vietnamese artist living in California. Even though there have been many renderings of “Asian” Mary, Mother of God, this request was unique because it originated from Vietnam to those in the Vietnamese diaspora. This turn in identity from "European-looking" colonial statues replaced by refugee-rendered “Asian-looking” statues provides a new aesthetic perspective to Catholicism.
The African Catholic Diaspora
Dominic Pasura, Research Fellow, Social Policy Research Centre, Middlesex University (England)
Daniel McNeil, Ida B. Wells-Barnett Professor of African & Black Diaspora Studies DePaul University
Moderator: Michael Budde, Chair, Catholic Studies; Professor, Political Science; Senior Research Professor, CWCIT--DePaul University
D. Pasura--Over the past decades, the large-scale movement of Zimbabweans abroad--shaped by political & economic developments in the homeland as well as by broader global, economic & cultural trends at the time--has led to the formation of durable & transient diaspora communities across the globe. In response to the hostile mode of incorporation into Britain, what some Zimbabweans described as the biblical Egypt & Babylon, Zimbabwean Catholic congregations emerged as spaces to construct transnational identities as well as provide alternative forms of belonging, & have reinvented themselves as agents of reverse-mission to the host society. In the diaspora, we are not only witnessing the dislocation of the traditional family but also the reconfiguration of new forms of social relations--relations that are not based on blood or kinship ties but are fortified by Catholic faith & national narratives. In examining the experiences, practices & theologies of Zimbabwean Catholics in Britain, this talk pays particular attention to how the group emerged, the challenges, tensions & opportunities which arose within the British context, & how this case study informs us about global Catholicism.
D. McNeil--This presentation follows Philippa Schuyler--a concert pianist, Catholic writer, anti-Communist, war correspondent, “sexy novelist,” & femme fatale--as she sought to escape what she considered the “taint” of a black identity in the United States. It documents the cultural materials available for an ambitious, talented & lonely individual who tried to achieve success in the 1950s & 60s by attacking an African diaspora as an alien Other (that she linked to Communism, anti-colonialism & Negritude), & defending the authority of strong white rule (that she tied to European imperialism & the sadism of James Bond).
Cross-Cultural Communion in a Postmodern World*
Daniel Groody, CSC, Director, Center for Latino Spirituality & Culture, University of Notre Dame
Gioacchino Campese, CS, Scalabrinian Missionary, Author, The Way of the Cross of the Migrant Jesus
Moderator: Karen Scott, Associate Professor, History & Catholic Studies, DePaul University
*This session originally featured a third speaker, Matthew Tan, this year's CWCIT research fellow. Dr. Tan has graciously agreed to speak instead on Tues., April 8, to replace Gösta Hallonsten, who is no longer able to attend the conference.
D. Groody, CSC--With more than 212 million migrating around the world, we are seeing unprecedented changes in cultures, communities & Churches around the world. This talk not only offers more information about migration but also a new imagination around this complex & controversial issue. As it looks at migration through the prism of the Eucharist, it explores ways that not only create connections across borders but also foster new understandings of communion & new possibilities for human solidarity.
G. Campese, CS--The presentation focuses on a review of the theologies of migration, particularly in the English-speaking world in the 21st century. It shows that one of the main themes that emerges from these reflections is cross-cultural relationship on equal terms as a vital practical Christian dimension in the age of human mobility.
Maritime Ministry: The Pastoral Care of Seafarers
Daniel Cardinal DiNardo, Archbishop of Galveston-Houston, Vice President, U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, Member, Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants & Itinerant People
Moderator: Rev. John A. Jamnicky, Former National Director, USCCB's Apostleship of the Sea; current pastor, St. Raphael Catholic Church--Old Mill Creek, IL
This presentation addresses a unique ministry funded by the Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston: the Apostleship of the Sea (AOS), or Port Chaplaincy, which is responsible for the sacramental & pastoral care of the Catholic seafarers from around the world who enter the ports in this Texas archdiocese. There are centers in Galveston, Barbour’s Cut & the Port of Houston. The AOS is one of several interfaith ministries located at the centers, working alongside Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, Episcopal, Presbyterians & other non-denominational chaplains & the Board of Seafarers to manage & operate the facilities. The Port Ministry, one of the largest of its kind, currently has 15 chaplains made up of priests, religious, deacons & seminarians, some staff & volunteers. Chaplains work hand-in-hand with staff run by the centers' board of directors, which is formed by the maritime industry, port officials & the ministry.
The Catholic Church in 2050
Philip Jenkins, Distinguished Professor of History, Institute for Studies of Religion, Baylor University
Moderator: Charles Strain, Professor, Religious Studies and Peace, Justice & Conflict Studies, DePaul University
The world's religious picture is changing very rapidly, with a massive shift of Christian numbers to the global South. This presentation describes this movement and discusses its significance for all Christian bodies, but above all for the Roman Catholic Church.